The Díaz regime’s agreement with the Mormons stipulated that to secure land and water rights, settlers from the U.S. must include native Mexicans as residents in their colonies. To help the Latter-day Saints comply with this requirement, the Mexican government paid train fares to help converts in Central Mexico relocate to the nascent colonies. Due to mismanaged expectation, and cultural clashes, the biracial experiment in the colony failed, resulting in the return of the native converts to Central Mexico, with some traveling the 1,000 miles to their original homes on foot.
After the death of mission president Rey Lucero Pratt in 1931, Antoine Ivins replaced him as the Mexican Mission president. Ivins responsibilities including not only the leadership of the Mexican mission, but also the leadership of Spanish-speaking missionary activity north of the U.S.-Mexico border. He directed missionary work in Mexico from the US through letters written to district president Isáias Juárez. Juárez, with very little support, continued to lead the branches of the Church in Central Mexico. It was at this same time that native LDS Church leaders on Mexico’s Central Plateau began holding meetings known as “conventions,” at which the needs of the Mexicans members were discussed and then sent to the First Presidency of the LDS Church by letter. After the second such meeting, in 1932, Mission President Antoine Ivins and Apostle Melvin J. Ballard visited members on the Central Plateau and informed them that their method of effecting change was outside the order of the Church.
In 1934, Rey Pratt’s half-brother, Harold Wilcken Pratt, replaced Ivins as the president of the Mormon mission in Mexico. Harold Pratt soon asked the leadership in Salt Lake City to split the territory Ivins had been over-seeing into two missions, one north of the border and one in Mexico, which Pratt would oversee. Many Mexican members had hoped that Pratt would oversee the Spanish-speaking mission in the U.S. and that a Mexican would be appointed mission president in Mexico. On April 21, 1936, against the advice of mission president Harold Pratt and District President Isáias Juárez, the third of the aforementioned native conventions (The Third Convention) met and nominated one of their own, Abel Páez (a member of the district presidency), to be the mission president in Mexico, replacing Pratt. In addition to having an indigenous mission president in Mexico, Conventionists sought the construction of chapels in Mexico, the translation and publication of Church literature in Spanish, and the opportunity for native youth to develop leadership skills by going on full-time missions.
In 1942, Arwell L. Pierce, was appointed president of the Mexican Mission. Pierce approached the split between the Conventionists and the mainstream Church with diplomacy and a spirit of cooperation. As far as Pierce was concerned, the separation of the Third Conventionists had been the result of misunderstandings. His efforts at reunification were aided by an influx of young missionaries from the United States, who had recently returned from military service at the conclusion of World War II. Pierce instructed all missionaries to focus their efforts on healing the schism and preventing further rifts by offering service and showing respect. His tactics were successful; in 1946, Pierce facilitated the reunification of Third Convention with the mainstream Church at conferences held in Mexico City and Tecalco, which were presided over by President of the Church, George Albert Smith. At the Mexico City Conference, nearly 1200 Conventionists returned to the Latter-day Saint fold.
In the short term, Pierce sought to accommodate the desire for indigenous leadership in Mexico by appointing a Comité de Consejo y Bienestar (a Counsel and Welfare Committee), which included former Conventionists Abel Páez and Apolonio Arzate alongside non-Conventionists Isaías Juárez, Guadalupe Zárraga, and Bernabé Parra. Post Third Convention, missionary work flourished in Mexico; the mission expanded to include Guatemala from 1947 to 1952, and, four new missions within Mexico were created between 1954 and 1960.
The mid-twentieth century, also saw the formation of fundamentalist splinter groups founded by Euro-Americans from the U.S. in Mexico. These groups sought to evade both federal prosecution and disciplinary action by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for their continuing practice of polygamy. Members of polygamist clans founded by the Musser, LeBaron, and Allred families associated with fundamentalists in Mexico, and some established their own colonies in the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora. Dayer LeBaron established Colonia LeBaron in the mid 1920s; his sons established a settlement in Las Parcelas in the 1940s. In 1964, Dayer’s son Joel founded a fundamentalist colony he named Los Molinos in Baja California. Members of the LeBaron family laid claim to potent priesthood offices, coveted by competing LeBaron brothers. Joel was shot in 1972 by his brother Ervil, who also ordered the murder of Rulon C. Allred in a power struggle over control of the fundamentalist movement.
Mexico’s first stake (diocese) was established in the Mormon Colonies in 1895, however, in 1961, the Church, with a total Mexican membership of 25,000 members, began concentrating on the further development of Spanish-speaking stakes (dioceses) within Mexico. That year, the first stake outside of the Mormon Colonies was established in Mexico City, and Harold Brown was appointed stake president. Brown had been raised in the Mormon Colonies and was a former counselor in the Mexican Mission to Arwell L. Pierce. While imminently qualified, Brown’s appointment continued Euro-American leadership within Mexico’s Mormon hierarchy. Brown did, however, appoint two indigenous counselors: Julio García as first counselor, and former Conventionist Gonzalo Zaragoza as his second counselor.
In 1997, Church president Gordon B. Hinckley announced the building of smaller temples throughout the global Church; one of the first of these was built in Colonia Juárez, Mexico and dedicated in 1999. This smaller design sped the growth of temple building in Mexico. By 2000, nine temples had been built, and in 2020 there were thirteen temples in Mexico with one under construction. In 2001, Hinckley established the Perpetual Education Fund, a program designed to provide loans to help Latter-day Saints outside the U.S. pay tuition for education leading to the acquisition of employable skills. The first three countries to benefit from this program were Chile, Mexico, and Peru. In addition to increased educational opportunities for members in Mexico, the Church experienced exponential growth in membership in Mexico in the latter half of the twentieth century.
All seven of the other General Authorities born in Mexico have been of native Mexican heritage. In addition to Horacio A. Tenorio, Jorge A. Rojas, a native of Chihuahua who had been a mission president in Guadalajara, was appointed to the Second Quorum of the Seventy; Rojas’ term lasted from 1991 to 1996. An educator and businessman, Rojas taught for a period at the Benemérito School. Rojas is one of several leaders from Mexico, who have held international positions in Latter-day Saint leadership. At the conclusion of his service as a Seventy, Rojas became president of the Guayaquil Ecuador temple.
Elisa Eastwood Pulido is a historian of religion, with a PhD in Religious Studies from Claremont Graduate University. She taught World Religions at Brigham Young University, Salt Lake Center until 2019. She researches religion at the margins: race, gender, and religion; religion in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands; and Mormon studies. Her first book, The Spiritual Evolution of Margarito Bautista: Mexican Mormon Evangelizer, Polygamist Dissident, and Utopian Founder, 1878-1961, was published in March 2020 by Oxford University Press.
 Matthew Bowman, The Mormon People: The Making of a Faith (New York: Random House, 2012), 115; William H. Gonzalez and Orlando Rivera, “Hispanics of Utah,” Utah History Encyclopedia, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.uen.org/utah_history_encyclopedia/ h/HISPANICS_OF_UTAH.shtml.
 F. LaMond Tullis, Mormons in Mexico: The Dynamics of Faith and Culture (Logan: Utah State University Press, 1997), 13; Barney T. Burns and Thomas H. Naylor, “Colonia Morelos: A Short History of a Mormon Colony in Sonora, Mexico,” Smoke Signals 27 (Spring 1973): 142.
 Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 18, 20, 30–31.
 Bill Smith and Jared M. Tamez, “Plotino Rhodakanaty: Mormonism’s Greek Austrian Mexican Socialist,” in Just South of Zion: The Mormons in Mexico and Its Borderlands, ed. Jason H. Dormady and Jared Tamez (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015), 55–56, 58–59, 62, 64–66.
 Smith and Tamez, 64–65.
 Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 401.
 Tullis, 41.
 Ibid, 55.
 Ibid, 62.
 Simón Zúñiga, From the House of Joseph to the Land of Restoration (Denver: Bilingual Publications, 2010), 8.
 Barbara Brown Jones, “The 1910 Mexican Revolution and the Rise and Demise of Mormon Polygamy in Mexico,” in Just South of Zion, 26. The Reed Smoot hearings in the Senate in 1907 over the continued practice of polygamy by Mormons (Mormons in Mexico included), posed a challenge to Mormon polygamists in Mexico, but did not discontinue the practice there. The largest factor in the discontinuance of most polygamy in Mexico was the forced exodus of Mormons in 1912 during the Mexican Revolution. Mormons who returned to the U.S. had to integrate with Mormons who had abandoned the practice for over twenty years, resulting in changing views and practices. See Brown, 27, 33.
 LeVon Brown Whetton, Colonia Juarez: Commemorating 125 Years of the Mormon Colonies in Mexico (Bloomington, AuthorHouse, 2010), 33-34.
 Elisa Eastwood Pulido, The Spiritual Evolution of Margarito Bautista: Mexica Mormon Evangelizer, Polygamist Dissident and Utopian Founder (New York: Oxford University Press, 2020), 74.
 Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 75, 77-78.
 “Rey Lucero Pratt,” Missionary Database, ChurchofJesusChrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://history.churchofjesuschrist.org/missionary/individual/rey-lucero-pratt-1878?lang=eng
 Barbara Jones Brown, 29, “The 1910 Revolution and the Rise and Demise of Polygamy in Mexico,” in Just South of Zion: The Mormons in Mexico and Its Borderlands, edited by Jason H. Dormady and Jared M. Tamez (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2015). 29-30.
 Moroni Spencer de Olarte, “’Ya llegaron los de Tierra Fría . . .’: Los colores del Zapatismo en la Región de los Volcanes, Estado de México” (Unpublished master’s thesis, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, August 2013), 68.
 F. Lamond Tullis, Martyrs in Mexico: A Mormon Story of Revolution and Redemption, (Provo: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2018), 67-68.
 Ignacio García, “Book Review” review of Martyrs in Mexico: A Mormon Story of Revolution and Redemption, by F. Lamond Tullis, BYU Studies Quarterly, accessed January 9, 2022, https://byustudies.byu.edu/content/martyrs-mexico-mormon-story-revolution-and-redemption.
 Kathleen McIntyre, Contested Spaces: Protestantism in Oaxaca, 1920-1965. Dissertation, University of New Mexico, January 31, 2013, https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=hist_etds.
 Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 103-104.
 Thomas Cottam Romney, The Mormon Colonies in Mexico, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1938), 250.
 Jason H. Dormady, “Introduction: The Mormons in Mexico,” in Just South of Zion: 11-12; Timothy Miller, “The Historical Communal Roots of Ultraconservative Groups: Earlier American Communes That Have Helped Shape Today’s Far Right,” in The Cultic Milieu: Oppositional Subcultures in an Age of Globalization, ed. Jeffrey Kaplan and Heléne Lööw (Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2002), 87.
 Pulido, The Spiritual Evolution of Margarito Bautista, 77; Betty Gibbs Ventura, The History of the Salt Lake Mexican Branch (Salt Lake City, 1998), 178-181; Turley and Christensen, 197. By 2017, 780 Latter-day Saint Spanish-speaking congregations existed in forty-one U.S. states. These church units are populated largely by Latin Americans in general, not only Mexicans.; Jason Swenson, “Humble Beginnings for Beloved Branch,” Church News, August 25, 2000, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.thechurchnews.com/archives/2000-08-26/humble-beginnings-for-beloved-branch-117871.
 Pulido, 81; Lamanite Genealogical Society, “History of the Origin of the Lamanite Genealogical Society, organized in Salt Lake City, Utah, October 13th, 1919.” Available at the Church History Library; Guadalupe Monroy, “Como Llego El Evangelio Restaurado al Pueblo de San Marcos, Tule de Allende, Estado de Hidalgo: He aqui la Historia escrito por I.,” 117. Available at the Church History Library.
 Matthew Butler, Popular Piety and Political Identity in Mexico’s Cristero Rebellion, (New York; Oxford University Press, 2004), 146.
 Deborah J. Baldwin, Protestants and the Mexican Revolution: Missionaries, Ministers, and Social Change, (Urbana: University of Illinois Press), 124; Pulido 24-25; Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 119, 125-127.
 Pulido, The Spiritual Evolution of Margarito Bautista, 161-163; Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 117-118.
 Enrique Gonzalez, “Acta de la Convención,” Informe General de la Tercera Convención de los Miembros de la Iglesia de Jesu-Cristo de los Santos de los Ultimos Días Celebrada en Tecalco, México, el 21 de abril de 1936 y que fué enviado a la Primera Presidencia para su resolución, (Mexico, D.F.: Comite Directivo, August 1936), 18-19.
 “Informe de la Mesa Directiva de la 3a. Convención, a la Primera Presidencia,” Informe General de la Tercera Convención, (Mexico, D.F.: Comite Directivo, August 1936), 19; Tullis, Mormonism in Mexico, 148-149.
 Mexican Mission Records, May 6, 1937. Mexican Mission, Manuscript History and Historical Reports, Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, LR 5506 2 v. 5 Box 2 folder 2 of 2, May 6-8, 1937.
 Elisa Eastwood Pulido, “Solving Schism in Nepantla: The Third Convention returns to the LDS Fold,” in Just South of Zion: The Mormons in Mexico and Its Borderlands,” edited by Jason H. Dormady and Jared M. Tamez. 281.
 Fernando R. Gómez, From Darkness to Light: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Lamanite Conventions (Mexico City: El Museo de Mormonismo en Mexico, A. C., 2004), 39.
 Pulido,” Solving Schism in Nepantla,” 95-96.
 Charles W. Eastwood, Interview, interviewed by Elisa Eastwood Pulido, Redlands, California, August 10, 2014.
 Turley and Christensen, 184; Boanerges Rubalcava, “The Church in Mexico and Central America,” in The Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992, accessed January 9, 2022, https://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Mexico_and_Central_America,_the_Church_in
 Pulido, The Spiritual Evolution of Margarito Bautista, 186; Alma de Olarte, “Historia de la Colonia de la Nueva Jerusalén,” Written in Colonia Industrial/Nueva Jerusalén. Available in Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library.
 Jason Dormady, “Colonia Industrial Mexicana Nueva Jerusalén,” Secret History: Reflections on Latin America, accessed January 9, 2022, http://latamreflections.blogspot.com/
 Moroni Spencer de Olarte, Interview, April 29, 2015.
 Dormady, “Introduction: The Mormons in Mexico,” 11.
 Pulido, 101.
 Esther L. Spencer, “History of Dayer LeBaron,” 71, Kirk Allen Watson Papers, University of Utah, Special Collections.
 D. Michael Quinn, “Plural Marriage and Mormon Fundamentalism,” in Fundamentalism and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education, ed. Martin E. Marty and Scott Appleby (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 247.
 Dormady, “Introduction: The Mormons in Mexico,” 11-12; “Tightknit Mormon Community Mourns Women and Children Killed in Horrific Attack in Mexico,” The Washington Post, November 6, 2019, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2019/11/05/every-family-is-affected-tight-knit-mormon-community-mourns-women-children-killed-northern-mexico/
 Tullis, Martyrs in Mexico, 134, 137.
 Rubalcava, https://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Mexico_and_Central_America,_the_Church_in
 “Se celebra el último Aniversario del Centro Escolar Benemérito de las Américas,” Noticias, 20 Febrero 2013, laiglesiadejesucristo.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://noticias-mx.laiglesiadejesucristo.org/articulo/se-celebra-el-ultimo-aniversario-del-ceba
 “Mexico,” Facts and Statistics, Newsroom, churchofjesuschrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org/facts-and-statistics/country/mexico
 Agrícol Lozano Herrera, Historia del Mormonism en Mexico, (Mexico, D.F., Editorial Zarahemla, 1983), 96; Rubalcava, https://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Mexico_and_Central_America,_the_Church_in
 Lozano, 96; Tullis, Mormons in Mexico, 159.
 Rubalcava, https://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Mexico_and_Central_America,_the_Church_in
 “Country Information: Mexico,” Church News, January 29, 2010, accessed January 10, 2022, https://www.thechurchnews.com/archives/2010-01-29/country-information-mexico-67301.
 “Elder Horacio A. Tenorio of the Second Quorum of the Seventy,” Church of Jesus Christ.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1989/05/news-of-the-church/elder-horacio-a-tenorio-of-the-second-quorum-of-the-seventy?lang=eng
 Ibid, 196; “Temple List,” churchofjesuschrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/temples/list?lang=eng; The Church Newsroom, Facts and Statistics, Mexico, “Country information: Mexico,” Deseret News Church Almanac (multiple almanacs from various years), Deseret News, accessed January 9, 2022, https://newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org/facts-and-statistics/country/mexico
 President Gordon B. Hinckley, “The Perpetual Education Fund,” Report of the 171st annual General Conference of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, May 2001, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/2001/05/the-perpetual-education-fund?lang=eng; Turley and Christensen, 208.
 Marvin K. Gardner, “President Marion G. Romney, the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles,” ChurchofJesusChrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1986/04/president-marion-g-romney-president-of-the-quorum-of-the-twelve-apostles?lang=eng.
 “Elder Jorge A. Rojas of the Seventy,” ChurchofJesusChrist.org, accessed January 12, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1991/05/news-of-the-church/elder-jorge-a-rojas-of-the-seventy?lang=eng.
 “Elder Benjamín de Hoyos,” General Authorities and General Officers, churchofjesuschrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/leader/benjamin-de-hoyos?lang=eng.
 “Elder Octavio Tenorio,” General Authorities and General Officers, churchofjesuschrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/leader/octaviano-tenorio?lang=eng.
 “Elder José L. Alonso,” General Authorities and General Officers, churchofjesuschrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/leader/jose-l-alonso?lang=eng.
 “Elder Arnulfo Valenzuela,” General Authorities and General Officers, ChurchofJesusChrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/leader/arnulfo-valenzuela?lang=eng.
 “Elder Moisés Villanueva,” Leader Biographies, ChurchofJesusChrist.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org/article/elder-moises-villanueva.
 Turley and Christensen, 196.
 “Facts and Statistics, Mexico, Newsroom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, accessed January 9, 2022, https://newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org/facts-and-statistics/country/mexico.
 “Temples of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,” accessed January 9, 2022, http://Churchofjesuschristtemples.org
 “Missions LDS Mexico,” Lifey, accessed January 9, 2022, http://lifey.org/mexico-lds-missions/
 “General Authorities and General Officers of the Church,” Church of Jesus Christ.org, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/leaders/list?lang=eng.
 Scott Taylor, “All 10 MTCs are Closing, Nonnative Missionaries to Return from Mexico, Vietnam, and India,” Church News, March 23, 2020, accessed January 9, 2022, https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/church/news/all-10-mtcs-are-closing-nonnative-missionaries-to-return-from-mexico-vietnam-and-india?lang=eng